HIV is transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids, primarily through sexual intercourse. South Africa has been one of the countries in which the AIDS pandemic has had a particularly devastating impact. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The words “perinatal HIV” mean that HIV has been passed into the new baby from the mother.
This family of viruses is also known for latency, persistent viremia, disease of the nervous system, and feeble host immune responses. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected body fluids like blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. It is spread by sexual contact with an infected person, and by sharing needles or syringes (primarily for drug injection) with somebody who is infected. HIV is not found in feces.
HIV is among a group of atypical viruses called retroviruses that maintain their hereditary information in the form of ribonucleic acid ( RNA ). Through the use of an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase, HIV and other retroviruses are capable of producing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from RNA, whereas many cells carry out the reverse procedure, transcribing the genetic substance of DNA to RNA. HIV is not transmitted through sweat, tears or saliva; or through sharing food, utensils, towels, bedding, a swimming pool, phone or toilet seat with someone who has the virus. HIV is not transmitted through bedbugs or mosquitoes.